Tag Archives: Affirmative action

Seven Sisters

Every year, the Art Gallery of NSW (Australia) features the Archibald Prize for portraiture. Alongside this exhibition are the Wynne Prize for Australian landscapes, and the Sulman Prize for … everything else.

While the Archibald tends to get most of the attention, the Wynne finalists are pretty impressive, and this year’s winner was worth a special mention. The acrylic painting is a collaborative work by five sisters from the Ken family, who live in a remote Aboriginal community in South Australia. The Seven Sisters depicts a Dreaming story** of seven young sisters escaping the advances of a man from ‘another skin group’. They eventually land in the heavens as a small bright group of stars; the man follows them into the sky, forever in pursuit but never able to catch them. The songline for the story extends from south/central Australia all the way to the west coast, and so comes in several variations and languages.

**Aboriginal works such as this are an expression of identity – through representations of country and traditional stories – so sometimes I wonder why they wouldn’t be classed as portraits. But I digress.

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Seven sisters by Ken Family Collaborative (acrylic on linen), winner of the Wynne Prize 2016 for landscape, at the Art Gallery of NSW.

The group of stars that the seven sisters become is known to many as the Pleiades, an open star cluster that lies 400 light years away within the constellation of Taurus the Bull. It actually contains not seven, but over 3000 stars, and can be seen from both the Southern and Northern hemispheres. Blue reflection nebulae surround some of the stars; these are the result of carbon dust grains reflecting blue light from the stars themselves. The man in pursuit is sometimes thought to be Orion the Hunter, or just one of the stars in said constellation.

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M45: The Pleiades star cluster (image credit & copyright: Robert Gendler)

Interestingly, this star cluster is associated with mythology across many other cultures: Indian, Greek, Native North American, Maori, and Japanese to name a few. As an aside, the Japanese name for the star cluster is Subaru, which is why the eponymous car manufacturer uses a stylised image of the cluster as its logo. In most of the myths and legends, the Pleiades represent seven sisters. So it’s no surprise that the Astronomical Society of Australia has chosen the Pleiades as the name for the Award that recognises institutions that actively advance the careers of women in astronomy.

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Correcting for the Selection Function: Gender

The under-representation of women and minorities within certain areas of academia, business and education, particularly in high-paying jobs and managerial roles is well documented. Anti-discrimination laws can only do so much when unconscious bias is rife. This is where affirmative action comes in, controversial as it is, in the form of any of the following:

  • scholarships for minorities
  • prioritising minorities given equal qualifications
  • diversity quotas.

The general idea is to account for the “selection function” that is privilege. In science, data is collected from objects which satisfy certain criteria. Often, the data we really want is convolved with the selection function. An example from astronomy is when you include only galaxy clusters brighter than a certain threshold in your sample; you are more likely to include objects: of higher mass; at low-medium redshift; that have cool-cores. If one wants to know the properties of an otherwise “fair” sample, you must perform some kind of deconvolution or correction (easier said than done). That’s what affirmative action attempts to do (also easier said than done). For the rest of this blog-post, I look at recent attempts to improve the representation of women, in particular, as well as responses to these .

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